This article summary: Zhiyu “DC Lab” comprehensive dismantling Model Y.
Tesla is already a well-deserved global intelligent electric car hegemony. In 2020, it is close to 500,000 vehicles globally, and in the first quarter of the 2021, Tesla has also delivered 184,800, such market performance. Riding dust.
Behind these brightly delivered, there is a Selse’s advanced three-power system, smart cockpit and automatic driving capabilities as a product rear book, and there is also its outstanding manufacturing process and manufacturing efficiency to ensure capacity.
However, while pursuing the amount, the Quality issue of Tesla vehicles, the security issue also appears, including:
The workmanship is rough, the panoramic sunroof is overturned, the brakes fail, the AP has a car accident, the battery is spontaneous, and there is still a repeated price reduction “cut,”, but also push Tesla push the tips.
Recently, for the Internet about Tesla’s one-sided interpretation and rumors, it is known that the professional answers from many electric vehicles and smart vehicles, and the “Diendal Temple” is constituted. .
The dismantling of Model Y is the opening of the “Note Lab”, which has produced a large number of professional, just, high-quality car interactions:
On the one hand, users can quickly understand the real performance of the car, assist the purchase decision;
On the other hand, riders can exchange interactive exchanges in the program, which also enables new scenarios that know the content of automotive brands and consumers.
It is understood that Tsela Model Y parts immediately will meet with car enthusiasts immediately.
After model y, Zhihua team will also choose other models to disassemble, and decrypt more hot-style inner Qiankun for everyone.
Below, to specifically look at the deep dismantling of Model Y, you will learn about the “Truck Labs” in this issue:
Overturned! Tesla Model Y Whirles Die Casting? Is there a sharing rate of Model 3 parts really 70%?
Tesla integrated die-casting process
Does Tesla’s automatic driving system reliable? What is leading?
Does Tesla’s battery safety?
The magical heat pump air conditioner has been derived from a small part!
Why can I have been price reduction? Where is the logic of TESLo?
1, overturning rumors! Tesla Model Y Whirles Die Casting? Is there a sharing rate of Model 3 parts really 70%?
Previously, in the market, Tesla’s consolidated molded, less than 100 meters of the whole vehicle harness and the Zero parts of Model 3 and Model Y reached 70% of these processes.
As so than?
In this dismantling, the “Demolition Temple” member, the main plant’s target engineer Leech has drawn three different conclusions:
First, Model Y does not have an integral die casting car body, but there is a large integrated cast aluminum.
Zhi Zhi’s “DC Tour” has been completely dismantled by Model Y, and found that there is no overall die-casting car mentioned in Tesla patents, but the floor structure of 1/3 of the body is completely a huge cast. Aluminum parts are replaced.
With this process, there is a lot of benefits:
The weight of the part can be reduced by 10% to 20%, reducing the power consumption of the vehicle;
Reduce the high design fees brought by a large number of parts and reduce the development cycle;
The high righteousness and high precision of the foundry is good for the improvement of the installation and performance of the suspension, and the more flat chassis will bring lower driving noise.
Although the material fee of aluminum alloy is much higher than the punching steel sheet, the cost of casting machine is also very high, but the integrated aluminum member reduces the welding process between a large number of steel plates, so the cost of the entire backplane will not increase.
Second, Model Y and Model 3 part sharing rate is not 70%, but 25%
This dismantling found that Model Y and Model 3 parts are not high. From the number of parts, the common rate is only 25%, not about 70% declared by the outside world.
Take the chassis part for example, although the front and rear sub-frames of Model Y and Model 3 are shared, but because the monocl y’s overall car is increased, the various swinging arms of the front suspension, the steering section, the brake parts will be different. .
This common rate is approximately 65% if statistics by part weight.
However, the proportion of parts re-developing is determined by the quantity, not the weight, so Model Y is more than 75% of the parts, about 75% of the parts, need to be re-developed.
Third, the whole vehicle harness length is still less than 100 meters, after which it is completely no problem.
Mask was previously claimed that Model Y’s wire length would be shortened to 100 meters.
However, this dismantling found that Model Y’s wire length and Model 3’s wire length did not differ, and the Wire length of Model 3 was approximately 1900 meters.
But now I haven’t done it, it doesn’t mean that you can’t do it.
Taking this flexible circuit board as an example, it has a length of approximately 15 cm, 8 of the channels transmitted, which are equivalent to 1.2 meters of ordinary wires.
If Tesla follow-up large-scale uses a flexible board to replace the currently used cable, the vehicle harness length can be shortened to the current 1/8.
Leech believes that when Tesla applies this structural cable in subsequent models, it is entirely possible to shorten the length of the vehicle to one to two hundred meters.
From these design, it can be seen that Tesla has been working hard for the high intensity of the body.
2, Tesla integrated die-casting process
The foregoing has been clarified that the floor structure of the MODEL Y body is completely replaced by a huge cast aluminum.
The rear floor structure of the general model will have about 60 rounds of stamping steel sheets, and the integrated die-casting process can be integrated into one.
The number of connection points is reduced from the original 700 – 800 to now 50, and the manufacturing time can also be directly shortened from 1 – 2 hours to now 3 to 5 minutes.
It is necessary to explain the principle of one-piece die-casting process:
The melted aluminum alloy solution is injected into the sleeve from one port, and then the piston is pushed quickly and highly in the mold.
The material of the traditional die-casting needs to have a stable performance through two phases, but Tesla is optimized by the material, does not require heat treatment, and the cast parts materials can meet the performance requirements of the part.
MODEL Y Arms Rear Floor relative to MODEL 3 can achieve 10% weight loss benefits, but there is no increase in cost.
However, the cast aluminum material is not perfect, and there is a short board. The die-casting process filled the aluminum solution into the cavity of the mold, and it is prone to a mass defect such as pore loosening in the place where the pouring is located.
In order to solve such a problem, it is necessary to have a large tonnage press, and after the tonnage of the press, the rapid flow of the aluminum liquid will be caused to the mold, which affects the life of the mold.
Sth, why is Tesla still insisted on? Know the “Demolition Temple” member, the whole vehicle architecture engineer Jeffgo analysis said:
“Tesla’s engineering team adheres to two philosophy in the development of the whole vehicle: First, it is constantly pursuing the integration efficiency of the whole car; the second is to run quickly, quickly iterate.
According to unknown channel news, Tesla is now developing an integrated die-cast front structure, and then the next step should be the integrated die-casting middle cabin structure, and make the foundation for the ultimate integrated concept of Cell to Car. “
3, is Tesla’s automatic driving system reliable? What is leading?
On Tesla, Masque has been protected as a camera-based auxiliary driving scheme, with millimeter wave radar, ultrasonic radar, claiming that the L5 level can be reached later.
Mask also tried to resist laser radar sensors and said that fools will use laser radar.
Zhi Zhiwi “Director Tour” member, Director of Driving Market Thinking not tall.
Specifically to see this sensor system on Model Y:
The Model Y is surrounded by:
1 mm Prada installed in the front bumper
Ultrasonic radar installed around the body
Chen Guang, an unmanned driving algorithm engineer who knows the “Demolition Town”, pointed out:
Tesla’s 8 cameras come from the same supplier – Ansian Semiconductors in the United States;
Millimeter wave radar is used is the fourth generation of radar in the mainland. The formal release time of this radar is 2016. It is already five years ago.
This radar itself exists in design defects, which cannot achieve measurements of the target height.
In addition, millimeter wave radar in the tunnel, the site, and the signal will occur multiple reflections, which will have a lot of misuse targets.
Therefore, many vendors in the industry will filter all the targets in the information, which only uses the target of motion.
Tesla is so dry now, in which the risk is that even if the millimeter wave prototypes detected the target on the road, as long as the camera did not identify it, it would be done as a misunderstanding.
For example, the Taiwan Tesla accident last year, because the system is dominated by visual, the data system does not identify the target of the truck white car, and the identification of millimeter waverad is as “misunderstanding”, so the vehicle is collided. Go up. And in the automatic driving calculation platform level, Tesla has also passed many generations.
Tesla’s automatic driving chip has chosen the Mobileye’s Eyeq and the DRIVE PX2 of British Weida, but eventually choose self-research.
Tesla has launched its own third-generation hardware solution FSD in early 2019.
In addition to hardware, Ziguo “Demolition Temple” member, unmanned awareness engineer Zhuge also introduced Tesla’s neural network visual closed loop system, which is the core of driving Testla AP system iteration upgrade.
In his description, the workflow of this visual closed loop system is like this:
Vehicle collects data, tag, and feeds to the network to train, generate a server-side model – 1.0 version model.
Then deploy the 1.0 version model to the end. When the vehicle enters these objects, it will be displayed on the center control screen.
The car starts working at version 1.0, and inevitable will encounter some long tail issues. At this time, it is necessary to use Teslat’s shadow mode, which will pick out these unrecognized data, which will be taken separately. Out of the unit test, the data that is not passed will then be sent to the first step of data container, and the data is reinforced to repeat the first step.
The 2.0 version of the model is then deployed, so loop until all scenes are overwritten.
However, this system is still unable to face, and it is often fair to identify some very wonderful targets.
Or take the Taiwan Chiayi accident, Tesla did not recognize the big truck on the side, because the camera identification algorithm is generally trained to identify the rear, side and the head of the vehicle, the engineer may not Thinking about one day you need to identify the top of the box of the truck.
This also highlights the limitations of deep learning algorithms and difficult problems in long tail.
Chen Guang summary: Tesra Model Y has this pure visual, no redundant technical solution is difficult to do automatic driving in the domestic city.
There is a large number of occlusion scenes in the urban road, and it is also difficult to ensure the safety of driving of the driving of the tricycle that is full of cargo. Therefore, the multi-redundant sensor solution is the necessary way to handle extremely complex scenes.
Chen Guang also strongly recommended that Mask installed laser radar on the car.
What is the specific performance of the auxiliary driving system on Model Y? Zhi Zhi “DC Tag” has been tested in detail in AP and AEB, respectively.
After actual test:
1. Tesla’s AP automatic assist driving and AEB are two sets of different systems, which also explains why the AP’s active cruise control module is optional.
The former car is the main body, and it is necessary to have certain safety and comfort, and brake and clear the brakes as soon as possible, it is not a collision warning or circumvention system.
AEB has always been a person-oriented, only to emergency, the car will take over, and the brake will be quite rush, minimize the impact of positive collision.
2, in the experiment, mostly understanding the AP mode, MODEL Y is at a speed of 20km, and it will have a brake response in front of the tapered bucket, but then accelerate it immediately to hit the ice cream, multiple experiments have repeatedly appeared multiple times The same phenomenon.
Observing the center control screen found that the ice cream is displayed, indicating that the Model Y has recognized the ice cream, which also shows that the entire control logic of Model Y AEB is problematic.
From the above profession, the elaboration and actual test of the protagonist, Tesla automatic driving has many advantages:
It has advanced FSD chips, clever camera installation arrangements, large-scale fleets, shadow mode, data engine, etc. These are the advantages of Tesla feature and pull the gap with other cars.
However, through the measured test, it also found that its identification capacity, logic control strategy, etc. can easily turn into the car.
Therefore, the AP software at this stage is still not excessive dependence, and Tesla has a large increase in space.
4, Tesla’s battery safety?
For electric cars, the most concerned point of consumers certainly includes battery safety.
This dismantling, Zhi Zhi Tuan Group member, an electric car high-pressure safety engineer engineering male, a comprehensive analysis of the battery of Model Y, also violent testing, including acupuncture and squeezing Test, found that Tesla has a lot of design in the battery. The battery of domestic Model Y uses the cylindrical three-dimensional core of LG chemical supply. The entire large-module cell has 1150, and 1058 cells of the small module.
The positive and negative of each electrical core is used to bond the aluminum wire.
Engineering Men’s Lao Wang believes that MODEL Y’s battery will switch into a domestic battery, then the price will also drop significantly, the current battery packs for 20% of the model of MODEL Y.
The upper and lower housing of the domestic MODEL Y battery pack use a large number of such structural adhesive forms, minimizing the connection of metal parts, achieving significant weight loss and drop.
Because of the high integration, the entire package level of the battery pack is not suitable. If the part inside the module has problems, the module basically only scrapped.
The engineering male and most discovered that the battery vibration pad of domestic Model Y was basically canceled compared to the previous generation of battery packs.
There is also a little need to vomit, the entire battery pack of Model Y is very expensive from the whole vehicle.
This is also no wonder that some netizens have broke the news, replace it with a Tesla battery package, and the photoelectric cost is more than 10,000 yuan.
In addition, the bottom of the domestic model y is basically the lowest point of the whole vehicle. It does not have additional protective boards at the bottom of the battery, or sprayed, such as this kind of anti-stone rubber in China, there are some pits. When the road or the mountain is going to go to the countryside, it is easy to happen the battery’s reserve accident.
The domestic MODEL Y battery module consists along the early major module design. Bydi, a hot fire, the Ningde Times, the structure of the CTP (Cell to Pack), which is used in the Ningde Times, but it is to improve the battery pack by improving its entire volume utilization. The energy density.
In addition to the structural characteristics of the module, the module also has some features in the installation, and “Demolition” is a total of 10 threaded holes in the side of the module when the battery pack module is removed.
But when dismantling, it was found to cancel 2, and then in addition to the threaded hole cancellation, the installation point is canceled, the two points of the module’s vertical beam are fixed, Tesla is really Reduce cost unscrupulous means.
This kind of way of this fuel will not have an impact on the use of the latter time of the vehicle, and still need to be discussed.
Model Y also adopted a active fuse, commonly known as “fireworks switch”, which used to be used above the low pressure system of the vehicle, rarely used in the high pressure.
Tesla is first used for high pressure, which is also a relatively radical program.
Second, Model Y’s battery management system also has many optimizations.
This isolation DC / DC integrated on the Tesra BMU circuit integrated plate is supplied or charged to BMU 12V shunt, etc., respectively, to ensure that the entire high pressure system can continue to work without easy power down.
At the same time, its motherboard integrates electronic precharge, which can save the pre-charge circuit, relay, precharge resistance, and achieve significant cost decline.
At the engineering male, the Battery Management System, the thermal management system of the entire battery pack is really good.
Whether it is the design idea of the thermal management system, its water-cooled board is also arranged, or the effect of the battery is also good, and the path to the heat transfer is also very efficient for the heat dissipation of the battery.
Compared to the design of such a thermal management system in China, Model Y’s thermal management system has a relatively high structure, and the entire battery is well refined, and the cost of cooling systems is not cheap.
Knowing the “DC Tag” this time, the thermal out-of-control test of the battery and the module level is also carried out, and the test method is the national standard test method.
Specific performance is as follows:
Cod Acupuncture Experiment: Short-circuit interior of the battery is short-circuited, and the fire is sprayed from the position of the pressure relief valve.
Electrical Core Extrusion Experiment: When the extrusion is 22.88 knop, the cell is deformable to 27.4%, and suddenly knock out.
Module puncture experiment: The single battery is fired after exploding, but the fire does not spread, the temperature slowly decreases, the voltage of the battery module does not change much, the car can still be opened.
In addition, the Model Y top package has two explosion-proof valves. After the thermal out of control, the two explosion-proof valves can directly guide the accumulation pressure generated by the battery pack to the outside of the battery pack, the limit of the battery pack. The flame will spray down here, and the mica board will block the flame to avoid direct injection of the aluminum alloy battery tray. This design is still better for user security and has left some escape time to users.
Engineering male and old kings pointed out that compared to imported version, Tesla domestic battery costs have declined, structural security, system security, and bottom impact safety have indeed decline, and the entire performance performance is tested.
5, the magical heat pump air conditioner is actually derived from a small part!
Below the front of Model Y, there is a very magical component, which is the heat pump air conditioning system.
In the “Demolition Temple” member, the three-power system integration engineer Lestone Xu seems to be “the cerebral hole” in this system.
Previously, most electric vehicles, including all models of Tesla, Tesla, using traditional PTC (thermistor), similar to the electric water heater, consume 1 degree electric energy, release 1 degree of thermal energy.
The core principle of the heat pump air conditioner is to carry the heat outside the car into the car in winter, producing 2 degrees of thermal energy in 1 degree electricity.
In order to manage the heating and heat dissipation of the three-power system and cockpit on the car, Tesla has developed a hot management architecture of a new idea to manage all the heat on the car.
The core of this thermal management architecture is an eight-jaw valve of an eight-legged figure.
In fact, in the previous generation of Model 3, Tesla has not used the upper heat pump system, which uses a very clever superbottle four-pass valve to integrate the battery and the electric drive control system.
When the battery needs to be heated, the waste heat of the motor and the inverter is released to the battery, and even the motor is blocked, and the efficiency heat is reduced to heat the battery, and the PTC heating device of the battery is also removed, but the PTC of the heating cabin still exists of.
MODEL Y is further further in the SUPERBOTTLE four-way valve, and it has been stacked with two four-way valve to form an eight-way valve Octovalve, and the air conditioner is integrated with the three-electric management system.
It is such a small valve that can change the connection method of nine piping, realize twelve heating and three refrigeration patterns. Its direct income is that the radiator of the front cabin is reduced to one, completely Relying on complex control strategies to realize reasonable allocation of heat.
In this way, the scrap heat of the motor electrically control can not only be used to heat the battery, but also can be used to heat the cabin.
The battery can also use the heat pump air conditioner to heat and cool, even in the warm sun in winter, when it is hot in the car, you can also transfer the heat in the car to the battery, and then release it again.
In addition, Tesla’s heat pump air conditioner has completely canceled the high pressure PTC (thermistor), which is replaced by using a compressor to generate heat.
Of course, Tesla is not the first car enterprise in the industry to apply hot pump air-conditioning. In this past, the foreign public E-Golf, Nissan His wind, domestic SAIC Roewe EI5, Marvel X, GAC AION LX has applied this technology.
6. Why can Tesla have been price cut? Where is the logic of this?
The price of domestic Model 3 lowered a round of round, “leeks” in China, was also cut a wave of waves, accidentally, all did not affect Tesla’s sales.
In 2020, Tesla has achieved amazing 137,000 units in China, and the sales of new energy vehicles in China.
What kind of magic is available in Tesla, so that everyone is willing to be “cut off”?
Knowing the “Demolition Temple” member, the luxury sports brand product manager Jia name gives three reasons:
The first is Tesla, the technology luxury electric vehicle brand image, life, acceleration, and automatic driving, forming the product strength;
The second is powerful cost control capabilities and dare to sacrifice the brand positioning, and the price exchange is determined;
The third is to meet the needs of the leeks, fast update, fast iteration, and provide consumers with a novel experience.
The most important one of them, of course, Tesla can continue to cut prices and reduce the threshold. This is reflected in its powerful cost control, and as the scale is expanding, there is also a price reduction space.
In the hardware design of Model Y, traditional automotive interiors common interactive design is as integrated into the touch screen and the steering wheel knob, and the instrument panel is also removed.
According to the “Demolition Temple” member, car product planning practitioners SUNFLOWERZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ can directly reduce 1000 to 2,000 yuan on some models. SunflowerZZZ believes that although these costs are province, the user’s interaction cost is increased, and vehicle safety is also reduced.
Knowing the “DC Tag” member, intelligent hardware engineer, 3 pounds, if it is only to cancel the switch and some parts, it is not enough to reduce the cost of vehicle costs. The domain controller design distinguishes between Tesra Model Y has also been very contributed.
Tesra Model 3 with Model Y breaks the routine, divided by the position, the left, front, right car identity controller, and central computing units.
In this way, in addition to the power system with the chassis system, the original more than a dozen controllers are reduced to these domain controllers. Overall, material costs are almost equivalent to one of the latest smartphones.
In addition, after the parts and harness are greatly reduced, the workers are assembled, and the production efficiency is increased.
And the inside of the controller, Tesla Model Y actually uses many very bold and smart design.
Take the central computing unit as an example, Tesla Model Y has two PCB boards, one of which is responsible for smart driving, and another responsible for information entertainment.
By these two years, Tesla adopted its self-developed automatic driving chip. This chip has 72TOPS, and there is a completely identical chip as a full backup.
According to relevant agencies, the total cost of Two chips of Tesla is as long as $ 190, while 3 of the HW2.5 era of 3 Inn the Yida chip is to $ 280.
In addition, in the PCB of info, Model Y did not adopt an ARM architecture chip selected by most car companies, but an Intel Atom A3950 of the X86 architecture as its main chip, which can be said to be a considerate ratio.
So why other car companies do not use the X86 architecture chip, mainly because the ecology of the X86 architecture is not good enough.
Tesla is looking for someone to develop an upper application, which is also a reason why Tesla car applications is significantly less than a domestic brand.
As a compensation, in front of Tesla, I believe that Intel will give an extremely “fair” price as a return.
Summary, the three pounds have said that under the effort of Tesla bold innovation, Model Y may save about 10,000 yuan in electronic and electrical, and it may be two, but it may be two, it is possible to sell. 30,000.
In fact, there is still a lot of cost-effective techniques on Tesce Model Y:
A increased mat is added to the bottom of the seat to solve the problem of insufficient height;
The seat skeleton did not perform an overall electrophoresis;
The interior atmosphere is not adjustable, the front headlight does not have a steering headlight function, the door speaker is covered with the cheapest fabric, the door storage tank is covered with non-woven fabric;
It is a lower cost of low pressure injection molding between the skylight glass and the door hole;
However, in the “Demolition Temple” member, the car passive safety engineer Tang Island is in the intersection, these configurations are completely sorry for Model Y more than 300,000.
In addition to the cost of saving costs, there are still some operations that do not meet the national standard requirements.
For example, the headrest in the middle of Model Y is obviously less than 700 mm, and the headrest is not locked at the lowest, and there is no label in the security position of the headrest.
When a rear-end accident occurs, the leather injury will cause huge damage to the neck of the middle passenger.
During the process of model y dismantles the interior, Tang Island Bay also found a coaxial airbag, left and right seat side airbag, left and right safe airbuffs, and did not do AirBag in the inner ornament.
Since Tesla has such a fierce control cost, how much can the model y be reduced?
The industry has conducted massive dismantling and analysis of Model 3. According to the calculation of the Benchmark team of the car, MODEL 3’s hardware cost is actually between 17-220,000, and the components of each system include the main suppliers as follows. :
After the calculation, the hardware cost of Model Y is probably 19-250,000.
Hardware cost is not equal to the sales price of the terminal, the sales price of the terminal should include the cost of R & D, manufacturing, sales, and these costs have changed continuously, so the terminal selling price is much higher than the cost of hardware. . Knowing the “Demolition Temple” member, product researcher Zheng Xun gave a prediction:
In the future, suppose MODEL Y is 5%, and the gross profit margin is adjusted to 20% of the industry, then the low-distribution version of Model Y may take 2.599 million.
7, ultimate innovation vs. extreme compression cost
Through the full dismantling of this Model Y, we saw Tesla in the field of smart electric vehicles.
Whether it is a vehicle manufacturer represented by one co-casting process, or the industry-leading layout made in the three-power system and intelligent level, or continuously reduces the ownership of the vehicle, so that more consumers can have such a smart. The electric vehicle can see Tesla as the strength of the global electric vehicle leader.
However, it should also be seen that Tesla is on the road to the ultimate cost compression, and many times have ignored the quality and safety of the whole vehicle, especially the problems that appear at the level of consumer life safety. Slave warning.
In the future, the global Tesla vehicle insurance will continue to exceed millions, 10 million, if you can’t guarantee high levels, safely guarantee that there is no loss, then advanced and highlighting in intelligence, is just the air building Pavilion.
For Tesla, which has been established for more than 10 years, it is necessary to make a century-old car company in the future.
After understanding the MODEL Y dismantling the dry goods, we have begun to know “DC Labs” follow-up to dismantling which hot models will be dismantled for us, let us wait and see.
* The picture screenshot self-enzided “Dolly Lab” video.